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1. Confirmation of an act. If, for example, X contracts with Y as agent for Z, but has in fact no authority to do so, Z may nevertheless adopt the contract by subsequent ratification. An unenforceable contract made with a minor can become enforceable if the minor ratifies the contract when he comes of age.
2. (in international law) The approval of a *treaty, usually by the head of state (or by the head of state and legislature or part of the legislature). This takes place when documents of ratification are either exchanged or deposited with a named depositary. Normally a treaty states expressly whether it will bind a party as soon as it is signed by that party’s representative or whether it requires ratification. The Vienna Convention on Treaties (1969) provides that when a treaty does not specify whether or not ratification is required, reference will be made to the party’s intention. Performance of a treaty may amount to implicit ratification.
3. (in company law) A resolution of a general meeting sanctioning some irregularity in the running of a company. Some irregularities cannot be sanctioned, such as acts that are *ultra vires or a *fraud on the minority.

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